In the 16th century, the Ottomans added the Red Sea and Persian Gulf coast (the Hejaz, Asir and Al-Ahsa) to the Empire and claimed suzerainty over the interior.
More than 9,000 Thamudic inscriptions were recorded in south-west Saudi Arabia.
The kingdom of Lihyan (Arabic: لحيان) or Dedan is an Ancient North Arabian kingdom.
(830,000 sq mi), Saudi Arabia is geographically the fifth-largest state in Asia and second-largest state in the Arab world after Algeria.
Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast, and Yemen to the south.
Following his death in 632, his followers rapidly expanded the territory under Muslim rule beyond Arabia, conquering huge swathes of territory (from the Iberian Peninsula in west to modern day Pakistan in east) in a matter of decades.
In so doing, Arabia soon became a politically peripheral region of the Muslim world as the focus shifted to the more developed conquered lands.
It was located in northwestern of the now-day Saudi Arabia, and is known for its Ancient North Arabian inscriptions dating to ca. Kindah was a tribal kingdom that was established in the Najd in central Arabia.
Its kings exercised an influence over a number of associated tribes more by personal prestige than by coercive settled authority.
For much of the 10th century the Isma'ili-Shi'ite Qarmatians were the most powerful force in the Persian Gulf.